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Abstract: The role of robotics is gaining prominence as the technology of the future. In traditional spine surgery, accuracy of hardware placement, selection of ideal size and length of implanted screws and hardware for segmental fixation is desired and important even for experienced surgeons. Hardware placement in tight spaces is especially critical in the cervical and thoracic spine. Robotics will enhance patient safety as well as surgical results, for the protection of patients.
By reducing surgical radiation exposure, it also protects patients as well as the surgeon and OR personnel. In endoscopic surgery, improving the accuracy of endoscopic trajectories with image guidance will also bring this aspect of MIS surgery to the surgical mainstream. Robotic techniques are evolving rapidly. Even in their current State of the Art, robotics offer significant advantages to the outpatient spinal surgeon by precise reproducible placement of hardware and endoscopes for minimally invasive approaches.